Chili powder app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.

Chili powder app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.


[Chili powder app] 

[Flower packing] 

[Food manufacturing]  

[Meat packing]  

[Farm management]  

[Fresh produce RFID]

99% less fresh produce packing waste

Accurate fresh produce & food inventory management reduces fresh produce waste through better FIFO stock rotation, stock-takes, and inventory alerts. RFID pallet control (optional) for precision inventory tracking. 

Save time packing fruit & vegetables

Increase the efficiency of fresh produce inventory using options like scanning incoming bar-codes to reduce data entry & errors, integrate with scales for automatic weighing, ore RFID for automatic fresh produce inventory tracking.

Better fresh produce quality control

Guarantee quality fresh produce packing with flexible fresh produce inspection  testing systems from your cell or tablet. Customer feedback management, supplier quality control and more...

Reduce fresh produce packing errors

Project required inventory (and potential shortages to ensure correct fresh produce raw materials), schedule orders to be packed in batches, automatic alerts to production line managers for waste and batch analysis.

100% accurate fresh produce order shipping

Shipping teams are guided through the dispatch process.  Pick orders using a cell / tablet, PC, (optional bar-code scanning), automatic picking, auto email or print bill of lading, invoice, send automatic shipping notifications for customers, transport, and sales teams.

Reduce fresh produce packing administration costs by 40%

Automatic generation of fresh produce labels, pallet labels, bill of lading, invoice, picking documents, export documents, and more; reduces administrative burden.

Easy audit & mock recall systems reduces compliance costs.

Faster fresh produce inventory storage  inventory

Accurate fresh produce & food inventory management delivers reduced waste and increased employee productivity. Manage FIFO, improve stock-take accuracy, scan harvester data, and keep a watchful eye on your inventory... Easy stock-take identifies shrinkage and helps reduce waste from ageing. 

100% accurate fresh produce traceability

Maintain strict fresh produce traceability and high food safety standards always. Perform recalls based on lot/batch, pack date, invoice #, inventory #, pallet #, delivery date, purchase order #, or perform a recall on your own user defined data. Perform instant recalls both up and down the supply chain. Makes audits easy and instant. COVID-19 food safety & auditing available. 

Reduce fresh produce waste by 99%

Inventory control ensures there is no 'shrinkage', food inventory is FIFO managed, and expiring inventory always monitored.

Increase customer satisfaction

From increase fresh produce quality control systems, to online portal for customer orders, shopping carts, and quality feedback.

Better fresh produce quality now

Quality control and food safety has never been easier with built in industry standard quality tests, food safety checklists; or ask your consultant to  configure inspections to match your requirements.

100% accurate orders!

Guarantee only the correct inventory is shipped for each order, on time, every time.

No more rejections from deliveries to customers because a pallet has some incorrect inventory on it.

The app for all chili packers, shippers, and wholesalers. Wash, grade, sort, pack chili peppers and bell peppers with ease using Farmsoft Chili Packing App: Inventory, traceability, quality inspections, shipping and invoicing. 

Farmsoft fresh produce packing app is for fruit & vegetable packer, processor, import/export.  Full fresh produce traceability, auditing, inventory control, and fresh produce business management app.

Quality inspection for fresh produce

Consistent and accurate quality inspection ensures higher customer satisfaction and adherence to industry, de-facto, and in-house quality control standards. Track supplier quality performance, customer feedback & complaints, create QC tests for any part of the fresh produce & food manufacturing process (incoming goods, raw materials, finished goods, expiry test, export/shipping tests), daily factory hygiene, machinery calibration, employee checklists... 

Fresh produce logistics

Manage orders, pack to order, picking and auto picking, dispatch & shipping process. Generate invoices, bill of lading, pick slips, export documentation and other sales documents... Dispatch teams are guided through the dispatch process ensuring every order is filled perfectly, and on time. Paperwork such as BOL, freight documents, export documents are automatically generated based on the customer and destination to guarantee no rejected shipments or issues at borders.

Fresh produce labels

Generate fresh produce SSCC pallet labels, GS1 case & PTI labels, bin labels, batch labels, traded unit labels, harvest labels and more. Use the built in industry standard labels for Walmart, Woolworths, Aldi, Tesco, Loblaws etc - or design your own with the built in label & report designer. Our team can design all of your fresh produce documents (including export documentation) to ensure farmsoft matches your requirements perfectly.

Fresh produce packing control

Sales, Quality, Profit, Dispatch, Pack, Farm...... Dashboards for sales teams provide instant impressions of customer orders and current inventory levels. The dispatch dashboard helps plan shipments, order of loading, and transport companies & drivers... The Profit analysis dashboard shows margins per unit and most profitable customers. Use our API to access your data however you like.

Fresh produce batch packing

Project required raw materials needed to pack/manufacture orders, potential shortages, schedule multiple orders to be packed in batches on selected production lines with a few clicks, automatically send new job alerts to managers, schedule additional harvests, analyze outstanding orders. Manage entire packing and manufacturing process with ease.

Fresh produce alerts monitoring

Automatic alerts for shipments can be sent to customers, transport providers, or even team members. Every time a batch is finished processing, receive an alert with the pack-out breakdown and percentages of grades & quality and waste. Alerts can include simple shipment notifications, or even invoices and original order details. Other alerts include order changes/modifications, yield reports, new order alerts, and low inventory alerts... 

Farm app option

Implement the farmsoft Farm Management suite to provide a comprehensive integrated business management solution from seed to plate. Includes automatic task management, best practices, budgeting, farm inventory, PHI enforcement, audits, residue reporting, USDA reporting, dashboards, farm profitability,  unlimited farms & companies, traceability, recalls and more... 

Fresh produce supplier quality control

Suppliers must know that your business measures & tracks their fresh produce quality at all times. Any trends that effect the quality of fresh produce can be quickly detected, automatically traced back to the fresh produce supplier (especially if a result of a customer complaint / feedback), management and purchasing teams are automatically alerted when a supplier quality issue occurs. Quantify and analyze your suppliers performance using the Supplier Quality Dashboard. 

Fresh produce finance apps

Share fresh produce finance data by direct integration with Xero finance app, or export AP & AR to Quickbooks, MYOB, SAGE, Multiview, Saasant, from the interface, or use our API to integrate with any finance or other app through inhouse or outsource, or request our team perform a custom integration for your fresh produce company. This is an optional module, please ask your consultant for additional details and discuss your specific requirements, additional costs apply for integration with new apps.

Fresh produce RFID

Automatic tracking of each pallet’s exact location. Makes loading orders accurate and easy, stops errors during shipping. Very low costs to setup your hardware using farmsoft’s innovative RFID for fresh produce solution. Pallets put onto truck are auto added to order, and checked for accuracy. Pick up a pallet and its RFID instantly selected. Add pallet/bin to production line and its auto added to batch for traceability.

Fresh produce API

Integrate with virtually any other app or software solution, or hardware using the farmsoft API. It's open! Anyone can use it. Your in house I.T. team, or any external I.T. vendor you want to help you with integration. Add your own reports, extract special data, or even create new interfaces between farmsoft and any app such as accounting, payroll, B2B, B2C. Other integration in farmsoft includes the ability to integrate with selected weigh scales to capture fresh produce net delivery weights.

Fresh produce bloch-chain

Increase customer confidence and prove the credentials of your traceability integrity and transparency with block-chain ledger technology.   We use the blockchain solution. (Optional module not included with standard Packing / Food Manufacturing ERP solution - please discuss your requirements with your fresh produce farmsoft consultant).

Improve fresh produce production planning

Efficient management customer orders, and the ability to analyze orders gives you new production planning tolls in farmsoft. Ensure each order is filled to exact specifications, on time, every time. Increase customer satisfaction and retention, and reduce stress in the packhouse with confident production planning using work orders/batch orders, sales contracts, sales orders, and sales order items. Are you manufactruing or processing chili products? Try farmsoft for chili processing. 

Accurate fresh produce traceability

Quality officers are guided through the quality control process, presented with images and instructions for each test, ensuring they know what to look for at all times, corrective actions are presented if a quality issue is detected. This makes training new fresh produce quality control officers fast, and ensures consistency in the quality control management processes for incoming fresh produce, post pack/post processing, storage, and dispatch. 

Efficient use of fresh produce cold stores

Maximize your cold store use and rotation of stock using farmsoft's pallet maps, and precision traceability tracking with expiring inventory reminders.

Cold store management software for fruit importers, exporters, packers, cross docking, and short and long term fruit storage.

Map cool rooms in 3D including row, column, and optionally level for stacked pallets.

Chili powder manufacturing app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.

The farmsoft inventory control app provides business wide quality management inspection systems for fresh produce, food manufacturing, seed processing, meat packing & processing, and flower packing.

Tesco food safety compliance food packers
Tesco food safety compliance for food manufacturers, packers, import, export, wholesale.  Tesco customers expect us to only sell products made to the highest quality and that are responsibly sourced. They trust us to ensure that all our products are safe and comply with all the applicable laws and regulations.

Within Tesco we have a number of highly skilled teams and colleagues across the globe that are dedicated to ensuring our customer expectations are not only met but exceeded. They manage the quality of products from the original product concept right through to our stores and customers.
Although this page is based on our UK business, a similar approach is taken across our international markets whilst ensuring all legal and cultural differences are acknowledged and catered for.  
Fresh Produce Bar Code Scanning

Fresh produce bar code scanning in agriculture easily delivers improved traceability in the fruit boxing and fresh produce packing space.  The FarmSoft team has add new features to the FarmSoft packhouse mobile (smart phone, iphone, tablets, and PDA’s) interfaces and new interfaces for in line bar-code scanning to allow rapid recording of packed fruit and vegetable via bar-code systems. Implement FarmSoft to make your fresh produce fruit packing easier and more efficient. FarmSoft delivers bar code scanning for packing sheds, packhouses, and fruit packers, exporters, importers and wholesalers.

Bar-code traceability

FarmSoft bar code traceability is rapid to implement, and easy to maintain. Implementing FarmSoft bar code traceability for fresh produce processing delivers increased accuracy of traceability, easy inventory management, and can result in reduced fresh produce waste.
FarmSoft bar code traceability provides multiple fruit labeling solutions which can be tailored to meet client inventory handling requirements.

Case level traceability

Case level traceability brings fresh produce processors, packers, and marketers easy and rapid traceability. Implement FarmSoft in no time at all, and start reducing processing waste!  Easy to deploy, farmsoft case level traceability is the best friend of any company looking to improve traceability in their food / fresh produce processing enterprise. 

Farm to fork traceability for reliable food safety and best handling practices for fresh produce – while reducing waste and increasing efficiency!  FarmSoft’s farm to fork traceability solution delivers bullet proof fresh produce traceability management in every way. FarmSoft’s farm to fork traceability solution channels staff through the correct farming and fresh produce handling processes ensuring maximum food safety and traceability is being maintained at all times.

Combine both FarmSoft Farm Software AND FarmSoft Fruit Packing Software to create a complete farm to fork traceability solution.

Fresh Produce Traceability India – FarmSoft’s fresh produce management software brings new levels of traceability and efficiency to Indian farming and fresh produce packing, processing, and exporting.  FarmSoft guides users through the fresh produce handling procedures to ensure the safest, highest quality fruit and vegetables with minimum waste. From quality control, waste analysis, to fresh produce labeling – FarmSoft delivers for professional fruit and vegetable processors and packers. Download FarmSoft’s Fresh Produce Traceability India specifications here.

FarmSoft India
Professionally manage and monitor all post harvest processes including quality control, storage, inventory, sorting, grading, washing, packing, sales, invoice, and dispatch.
Traceability requirements matrix fresh produce

Traceability requirements matrix fresh produce packing, processing, value adding.   Traceability requirements matrix fresh produce
Traceability requirements matrix in fresh produce

Makes fresh inventory food safety compliance & audits easy.
Traceability requirements matrix fresh produce
Traceability requirements matrix fresh produce.
Blockchain for fresh produce traceability

Visit our official fresh produce blockchain site for the latest fresh produce blockchain information.
Ask your farmsoft consultant if your chosen block-chain protocol or format is supported.
Blockchain – Essential for Fresh Produce Traceability
The Produce Traceability Initiative, was designed to help the Produce Industry maximize the effectiveness of current traceback procedures, while developing a standardized industry approach to enhance the speed and efficiency.
Food Traceability Software

FarmSoft food traceability software delivers bulletproof food safety and reduces business risk.  The FarmSoft is built on a solid platform of food traceability and safety standards. FarmSoft guides users through the food processing and manufacturing phases. The FarmSoft food traceability software suite specializes in processing and manufacturing involving fresh produce, fruit, and vegetables. Dried, cured, juiced, pulped, or even made into value added jelly and jams. Click here to download food traceability software specifications.

Fresh Produce Traceability Bar-code

Fresh Produce Traceability Bar-codes for fruit & vegetable packers, processors, and food manufacturers.  Fresh Produce Traceability is much more than applying a label to the packed fruit or vegetable. FarmSoft delivers strict fresh produce traceability guidelines for supply chain end to end food safety & transparency.

Ensuring that the traceability chain has no gaps in it is important to reduce the risk exposure of your business. If there is a breach in the traceability chain, then the whole traceability enforcement system has failed and becomes a pointless expense. FarmSoft ensures 100% accuracy of traceability throughout the entire life-cycle of fresh produce, from pre-planting, to post sales traceability guideline adherence. FarmSoft ensures your business is not unnecessarily exposed, while minimizing compliance costs. 

GS1 Traceability for fresh produce

FarmSoft GS1 traceability system does much more than just print labels! Manage your inventory, maintain traceability, pack, process, and store fresh produce. Perform sales and dispatch and invoicing. Reduce fresh produce waste.  FarmSoft GS1 traceability system does much more than just print labels! Manage your inventory, maintain traceability, pack, process, and store fresh produce. Perform sales and dispatch and invoicing. Reduce fresh produce waste.
farmsoft makes fresh produce GS1 traceability easy!

Increase the efficiency of fresh produce deliveries using options like scanning incoming bar-codes to reduce data entry, save time, and reduce errors. Scan incoming fresh produce deliveries or use "one touch" rapid inventory creation screens to increase accuracy & reduce data entry time.

FarmSoft track and trace provides end to end supply chain transparency for fresh produce traceability. Implement FarmSoft to guarantee the highest level of traceability both up and down the supply chain!  FarmSoft track and trace is a comprehensive fresh produce business management solution that caters for all operational processes from quality control, inventory, sales, dispatch, and orders. FarmSoft even provides food manufacturing, good manufacturing management, and value adding features. FarmSoft track and trace software provides many innovative features to bring easily maintained benefits to the fresh produce processor, packer, and marketer.

Using the FarmSoft traceability code, customers, and end consumers can track and trace fresh produce simply by scanning a QR code with their smartphone. The track and trace system will then present the customer/end consumer with the traceability or marketing information as chosen by the packer. This helps to improve customer confidence and provides supply chain transparency to promote the concept of food safety.
Produce Traceability Initiative PTI

Produce Traceability Initiative (PTI), HACCP, GlobalGAP, CanGAP, EuroGAP, BRC, Bio-Terrorism, ISO and more…Simple PTI solution - software for fruit and vegetable processing

Farmsoft delivers opportunities to reduce waste during the packing, processing, storage, and distribution phases. By enforcing best practices, FIFO (when practical), inventory expiry monitoring, and easy stock takes - your company has every opportunity to minimize waste and maximize profit. From bar code managed inventory, inventory labeling, to 3D pallet storage, farmsoft delivers on reduced waste.
Perform recalls in seconds, with the full confidence of accuracy and reliability. Minimize risk by ensuring accurate traceability is automatically captured. Pass audits with ease & reduce compliance costs using farmsofts traceability guidelines. 

Inventory traceability software for reduced post harvest waste

Inventory traceability software
The purpose of the Fruit & Vegetables implementation guidance is to provide best practice guidelines for industry-wide adoption for New Item Listing and update of existing assortment. This guide provides support to companies seeking to electronically exchange fruit & vegetable product information in accordance with GS1 Standards. The guidance applies to the full range of fruit & vegetable trade items. The guide outlines which attributes should be used for fruit & vegetable items and recommends best practices for the use of these standards to exchange static fruit & vegetable data between suppliers and retailers. Today, different platforms as well as different means to item identification exist when it comes to data sharing. Traceability case study for Paramount Citrus, Traceability case study for Mother Earth Organic Mushrooms, SunFed visibility of produce throughout supply chain with case and item level traceability. 

Simple traceability solution

Simple traceability solution - software for fruit and vegetable packing
Processors and packers involved in the fresh produce industry deal with a lot of compliance and traceability issues. If the worst happens and a product recall needs to be effected immediately, they have to be able to trace where the raw ingredients of fruit and vegetables came from, what was done to them, when and where the finished products have gone.
Fresh produce processors and packers manufacturers are subject to quality audits and they can often practice recalls and food safety incidents. From a business perspective, these activities often can be expensive and cumbersome to comply with, without the use of a simple traceability solution that is integrated into the businesses fresh produce handling processes and guidelines.

Less waste, more traceability

Less waste, more traceability: Full featured software for fresh produce processing, packing, sales, export/import & distribution.  MINIMIZE FRESH PRODUCE WASTE

For handlers of perishable goods, reduce waste during packing, processing, cold store, order picking and dispatch phases. Enforce GMP and best practices, FIFO (when practical), inventory expiry monitoring, and easy stock takes to help minimize waste and maximise profit. Receive detailed alerts when waste is encountered through quality issues, or possible human error.

Fresh produce export documentation

Farmsoft makes fresh produce export documentation easy with new features that generate international standard fresh produce export documentation for fresh produce producers, processors, and packers.   Rapidly generate fresh produce export documentation on demand!

Farmsoft makes fresh produce export documentation easy with new features that generate international standard fresh produce export documentation for fresh produce producers, processors, and packers. The modern packing and processing facility is busy environment. Dealing with the excess of export regulations and paperwork requirements can often be a headache.

Reduce fresh produce waste, Orders - Quality - Production - Sales & shipping - Recalls & audits - Dashboards, analysis, business intelligence.   Reduce fresh produce waste, make production and shipments 100% accurate

Strict inventory management ensures FIFO and no orphaned fresh produce inventory, no loss of inventory due handling processes.
Production management ensures every order is filled accurately, dispatch is planned in advance, and correct shipments dispatched on time, every time.

Chili powder manufacturing app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.

Turmeric Powder, Coriander Powder and Chilli Powder Processing Industry

Turmeric Powder, Coriander Powder and Chilli Powder Processing Industry. Start a Masala Factory. Spices Production Business

With spice, comes flavors and regular foods become luscious in taste. Each spice has a different texture, unique aroma, and enhancing features that bring out the best of the ingredients and make food delectable.

India, known as the home of spices, boasts a long history of trading with the ancient civilizations of Rome and China. Today, Indian spices are the most sought-after globally, given their exquisite aroma, texture, taste and medicinal value. India has the largest domestic market for spices in the world. Traditionally, spices in India have been grown in small land holdings, with organic farming gaining prominence in recent times.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is native to Asia and India. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric have been used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is very important spice in India, which produces nearly entire whole world’s crop and consumes 80% of it. India is by far the largest producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Turmeric occupies about 6% of the total area under spices and condiments in India.

Turmeric has been India’s golden spice for the past five centuries. It is one of those few Indian products having both commercials as well as mythological significance. Turmeric is used not only in the culinary item but also as cosmetics in almost every Indian household. Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, unman, and traditional Chinese medicine. It was first used as a dye, and then later for its supposed properties in folk medicine.

Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting mustard like earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods. Turmeric is used mostly in savory dishes but also is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake stuffing. Turmeric paper also called Curcuma paper; this paper is steeped in a tincture of turmeric and allowed to dry. It is used in chemical analysis as an indicator of acidity and alkalinity.

Dhania Powder is the need of every Indian cuisine. Coriander or dhaniya is an indispensible spice in Indian as well as in all other cuisines. There is no distinct evidence on its place of origin but it is believed to be a native of southern Europe. Although it is now widely cultivated all over the world for its green leaves, seed production is largely concentrated in India. It is scientifically known as Coriandrum sativum.

Chilli Powder is a world renowned spice that is used in many cuisines and recipes of various cultures to add a tangy taste to them. India is one of the largest consumer and exporter of chillies. It is often referred to as a type of pepper due to its matching taste but interestingly it is not even close to the family of piper nigrum rather it belongs to the family of capsicum. Chillies come in different colors, varieties, fragrances, sizes etc. but are similar in structure i.e. a hollow, seed containing and tube like structure. A substance known by the name of Capsaicin results in the pungent flavor of the fruit.

Market Outlook

The demand for Indian spices used all over the world has not only increased the demand for vegetarian and non-vegetarian recipes to be filled with tasteful and medicinal qualities, but their use in the cosmetics industry has increased in record quantities this year.

Total spices export from India stood at 1.08 billion kgs, valued at US$ 3.11 billion in the year 2017-18. Between Apr-Oct 2018, 621.98 kgs of spices worth US$ 1.84 billion have been exported.

Top 10 importers of Indian spices between Apr-Oct 2018 were the US, China, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, Thailand, UK, UAE, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

During 2017-18, top 10 exported spices and spice products in terms of value were Chilli, Mint products, Spice Oils & Oleoresins, Cumin, Turmeric, Pepper, Curry powders/paste, Cardamom seeds, other spices (Tamarind, Asafoetida, and Cassia) and Garlic.

India is known to trade around 50 percent of spices by volume, all over the world. As per the latest news and research, there is a high demand of spices around the globe and the country is predicted to export powdered and other spices like oils, seasoning, oleoresins, and extracts.

India imports round about 0.1 Million tonnes of spices which is being re-exported. Several Indian states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh are the leading states that produce Spices India.

The Indian spices market is projected to reach approximately USD 18 billion by 2020 with growth in the sector is expected to be led by branded spices and spice mixes. The Indian government is aggressively promoting spice exports through various initiatives such as setting up of spice parks. Spice Parks offer common processing facilities to both producers and exporters.


India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Indian turmeric is considered to be the best in the world market because of its high curcumin content. India accounts for about 80 per cent of world turmeric production and 60 per cent of world exports. Other major producers are Pakistan, China, Haiti, Jamaica, Peru, Taiwan and Thailand. Asian countries consume much of their turmeric production.

The important turmeric growing States in India are, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Maharastra, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and West Bengal, in which Andhra Pradesh occupies 40 per cent of total turmeric area followed by Orissa and Tamil Nadu occupying 17 per cent and 13 per cent of total turmeric area respectively. In terms of production Andhra Pradesh accounts 60 per cent of total turmeric production in India followed by Tamil Nadu (13 per cent) and Orissa (12 per cent).

The market is expected to be valued at more than US$ 1,300 Mn by the end of 2027, representing absolute $ opportunity of close to US$ 40 Mn in 2017 over 2016 and an incremental $ opportunity of nearly US$ 600 Mn between 2017 and 2027. On the other hand the sales of turmeric in Eastern Europe is expected to remain low as compared to other regions throughout the forecast period and is expected to account for a revenue share of little more than 4% by 2027 end.

Key market players in turmeric market mainly belong to Asia Pacific region, some of the major players of this industry are Nain agro foods, earth Expo Company, curcuminea, Sino-nature, MDH Spices, ITC Spices, Tag Agro Products and Shah Ratanshi Himeji and co. among others.


India is the largest producer and consumer of coriander seed. Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan are the main coriander producing states in the country, accounting for 85-90 per cent of production.

India is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of coriander in the world with an annual production averaging around 3 lakh tonnes. The production fluctuates widely between years and has varied from below 2 lakh tonnes to above 4 lakh tonnes in this decade.

Rajasthan (54%) and Madhya Pradesh (17%) are the two largest producing states in the country contributing over two-thirds to the country's total production in 2006-07. The other producers are Gujarat (6.9%), Assam (6.6%), Andhra Pradesh (3.5%, Karnataka (3.3%), Orissa (3.2%) and Tamil Nadu (2%)

Coriander for seed cultivation is grown as a rabi crop with sowing undertaken during October - November and new crop arrivals seen in February - March.

The major domestic buyers of coriander seed in India are spice processing agencies, which consume around 50% of the production are mostly located in the southern states of India and Delhi. The demand from this sector peaks during April to June, which also coincides with the peak arrival period.

Chilli Powder

The large demand of chilli is made by several chilli consuming countries as it forms part of cuisines of various cultures and is also used as a coloring agent. Most of its demand is generated in the food processing sector. The following countries are the major consumers of the world with India again leading the list

· India

· China

· Mexico

· Thailand

· United States of America

· United Kingdom

· Germany

· Sweden

India is also the largest consumer and exporter of chilli crop. It consumes about 90% of the total produce of the country. The demand from the chilli powder-growing sector constitutes to 30% of the total production in the country. Exports of chillies sum up to around one lakh tons, which makes 33% of the total spices exported from the country. Chilli powder, dried chillies, pickled chillies and chilli oleoresins are some of the forms in which this crop is exported. The major importers of chillies from India are United States of America, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mexico, Canada, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Malaysia and Germany.

India is the only country that is rich in many varieties of chilli and there is immense potential to further grow and export the different varieties that are required by different markets around the world.

Global Spice Market

The global market for spices has witnessed continued demand during the last few years and is estimated to reach 83,468 kilo tons by 2022, at a CAGR of 2.84% from 2016 to 2022. Increase in versatile demand across various food and beverage segments particularly for convenience foods and beverages is likely to drive the global spices market during forecast period 2016 to 2022.

The leading market players in the global spices market primarily are McCormick & Co., Inc. (U.S.), Olam International (Singapore), Everest Spices (India), B&G Foods Holdings Corp. (U.S.), Cerebos Gregg’s Limited (New Zealand), MTR Foods Private Limited (India), Mahashian Di Hatti Limited (MDH)(India) and ITC Spices (India)

The rising consumer awareness about the medicinal properties of a number of spices including turmeric, cloves, and cinnamon used for various fungal and bacterial infections will further drive the market growth in the near future. Antibiotic property of spices is likely to increase its demand during the forecast period. To tap into emerging markets, manufacturers are continually introducing new product portfolio, thereby driving seasonings and spices market revenue.

Spice exports contribute to nation’s gross income considerably in countries like China, India, Africa and the Middle East. Spices are generally sold at premium spices and also in greater demand which can further enhance export revenues in major spice producing countries. Spices farming mechanism starts at grass root level conserving the generative and renewing capacity of the soil, plant nutrition, and soil management, yields nutritious food rich in vitality which has resistance to diseases. Increasing demand of natural flavoring and coloring agents in food, medicinal properties and health benefits are driving the spices market. There is high demand for spices from regions like Asia Pacific, Middle East and Europe.

Based on the product type, the global market is segmented into individual and mixed spices, salt substitutes, salt, pepper, dried herbs, and others. Among these, salt substitutes are projected to contribute significantly towards global seasonings and spice market size over the forecast period.

Changing consumer food habits and an increasing number of dedicated restaurants for Thai, French, and Italian food are a few more factors fueling the demand for spices and seasonings on a global level. Growing popularity of organic spices and seasonings is expected to continue trending by the end of 2020, boosting the revenues of the global market. Organic segment is currently at a nascent stage, and will offer lucrative growth opportunities. Certain spices and herbs even find important application in the medical therapy field. This also is a promising factor that can potentially propel the demand.

Effect of Storagibility on the Shelf Life of Green Chilli Powder Using Different Packaging Materials
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of packaging materials and storage conditions on the shelf life of Pusa Jwara green chilli variety. Green chili powders (Capsicum annuum) produced by (lyophilize, Tray and sun Drying), packed in two packaging materials (High polypropylene and Flexible Packaging Foil) and stored under two temperatures.
Regarding the overall data, the maximum moisture absorption (14.60%) was shown in gunny bags and in polythene lined gunny bags (13.23%), while the minimum moisture content (11.23% and 11.51%) was found in the laminated aluminum film and LDPE film, respectively. These findings were in conformity with Al-sebaeai et al. (2017) who explained the minor increase in moisture content during storage mostly due to the porosity of the packaging materials and the hygroscopic nature of the chilli powder. The augmentation and reduction of moisture balance well with the relative humidity of the environment prevailing during that period. 
As number of storage days increased, ascorbic acid content was decreased in all the treatments. The research results are in harmony with Al-sebaeai et al. (2017). The ascorbic acid content of chilli powder decreased slightly during the storage period. ...
Effect of different packaging materials on the shelf life of dried red pepper (Capsicum annuum. L.) stored in ambient conditions
The investigation on shelf life of dried red pepper was conducted in ambient conditions with different packaging materials likealuminum-, LDPE- and HDPE films and paper-, gunny- and polythene lined gunny bags.A significant difference at 30- and 60-days after storage (DAS) was observed. Minimum moistur e (10.67%), color values L* a* b* (28.32, 36.34, 21.67), ascorbicacid (46.62 mg 100 g-1), oleoresin (9.19%) with no microbial and pathogenic infestation were observed from the aluminum filmat 30 DAS.At 60 DAS, the trend showed as moisture (11.23%), microbial and pathogenic infestation (0.13), colour value L*, a*,b* (25.19, 31.85, 18.85), ascorbic acid (45.05 mg100 g -1) and oleoresin (8.79%) with aluminum film. However , a relativelyhigher moisture, microbial and pathogen infestation, lower color values, ascorbic acid and oleor esin were observed in gunnybags followed by polyethylene lined ones. So the aluminum film may be advocated as suitable packaging materials.
.The package is an integral part of the preservation system and functions as an interface between the food and the external environment; the package should be designed and developed not only to contain the food product but also to protect it and add value to it, as its design may directly affect the purchase decision of the consumer. Mohammed et al. (2017) conducted the experiment to evaluate the effect of packaging materials and storage conditions on the shelf life of Pusa Jwara green chilli variety. Green chili powders (Capsicum annuum) were produced by Lyophilization, Tray and Sun Drying, packed in two packaging materials as High polypropylene and Flexible Packaging Foil and stored under two temperatures of 37 and 5ºC. ...
Characteristics, Packaging and Storage of Red Chilli Powder: A Review
Spices play an important role in enhancing the flavour and taste of the processed foods. On account of their ability to impart flavour and aroma, spices have been used in the preparation of a wide variety of processed foods. Chilli is an important spice crop and India is one of the leading producer and exporter of chilli in the world. Chilli is widely used around the world in food as a spice, both in fresh and dried form that adds flavor to the meal by creating spicy and pungent taste. Powdered spices are convenient to use and also save time and energy for preparing different delicious dishes. Besides their everyday use in households, spices are used in significant quantities in processed foods such as pickles and sauces. Therefore, the necessary information regarding different processing characteristics, processing practices, packaging and storage of red chilli powder is reviewed in this article.
Production and applications of polylactic acid
 Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer made up of lactic acid monomers. It is being increasingly produced today because of its potential applications in textile industry, pharmaceutical, packaging, bioremediation, and many more. The commercial production of lactic acid enantiomers is mostly done using renewable materials such as lignocellulosic and starchy biomass along with the milk-processing industry by-products like whey. Homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are most widely used for production. However, some cyanobacteria, fungi, and yeast have also been reported for efficient lactic acid fermentation. Genetic engineering and molecular biology approaches are being continuously used for strain improvement for more efficient and economic production. Fermentation has been commercially performed in batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode with the use of techniques like membrane filtration, reactive extraction, and others for separation from the broth. PLA can be composed of either pure l-isomer or d-isomer or both d, l-lactic acid depending upon the requirement and use. Polymerization processes such as polycondensation, ring-opening polymerization, and direct methods like azeotropic dehydration and enzymatic polymerization are used to form PLA from lactic acid monomers. This paper discusses the need of PLA and the methods used for its commercial production along with its structural properties and wide range applications.
Consumption of Green Chilli and Its Nutritious Effect on Human Health
Oct 2020
Anil Kumar Chauhan
Poonam Yadav
Mohammed Alsebaeai
Arvind Kumar
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is the most widely consumed spice and used in the cuisine of all countries. Green chilli has widespread acceptance around the world as a food and source of spices. They provide essential antioxidant and vitamins A, C and E for most of the world population. 

Chili powder manufacturing app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.

The invention relates to the technical field of chili powder preparation, in particular to a chili powder preparation method. The chili powder preparation method comprises the following steps of removing bases of chilies, selecting, cleaning and drying chilies into crispy chilies, packaging the chilies into a vacuum bag, and sealing and storing; when the chilies are used, the vacuum bag is flattened and kneaded, so that chili powder can be obtained. According to the chili powder preparation method, the chilies are dried, are not crushed and then are packaged; the chilies can be kneaded and crushed when the chilies are in use, so that the flavor is kept, and nutritional components are remained, and the quality of the chili powder is improved; the chilies are dried and prepared into the crispy chilies, and the crispy chilies can be kneaded into powder when the crispy chilies are used in the later period, so that the preparation difficulty of the chili powder is reduced; the chili powder is packaged in a vacuum manner, and inert gases can also be fed into the vacuum bag, so that the chilies cannot be pressed into powder in the storage process, therefore the quality of the chili powder is improved, and the quality of the chili powder is guaranteed.

Chili powder manufacturing app manages chili drying, chili dehydration, chili storage, chili grading, chili crushing and powdering: plus full chili traceability, inventory, sales, recalls and more.

Effects of processing techniques on drying characteristics, physicochemical properties and functional compounds of green and red chilli (Capsicum annum L.) powder
Md. Mostafa Kamal,1 Md. Rahmat Ali,1 Md. Mahfuzur Rahman,2,3 Mohammad Rezaul Islam Shishir,4 Sabina Yasmin,2 and Md. Sazzat Hossain Sarkercorresponding author2
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of processing techniques on the characteristics of green and red chilli powder. Four samples, such as pretreated green chilli paste (PTGP), pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit (PTGL), pretreated whole red chilli (PTWR) and untreated green chilli paste (UTGP), were prepared and dried at 60 °C in a cabinet dryer. The pretreatment was blanching in acetic acid solution and soaking immediately in a combined solution of Na2S2O5 and CaCl2. Pretreated samples took a shorter drying time than the untreated sample in reducing moisture content from 86.31 to 8%. Pretreatment before drying resulted in retaining total chlorophyll (~ 86%), phenolic compounds (~ 32%), green color, and pungency of chilli. Analysis result indicated that more than 60% retention of β-carotene was found while retention of ascorbic acid was comparable. Conclusively, this research reveals a good nutritional profile in cabinet dried green chilli powder, which may open the scope for commercial production.

Keywords: Green chilli, Drying, Blanching, Chemical soaking, Chlorophyll, Ascorbic acid, Phenolic compounds
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Spices occupy an important group of agricultural commodities since ancient times, which naturally contain a significant amount of antioxidants and bioactive components (Dubey et al. 2015). Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) is the most widely cultivated vegetable cum spice over the world (Dubey et al. 2015). Apart from the rich source of ascorbic acid, it is a good source of flavonoids, carotenoids, phenols, vitamins, saponins, nitrogenous compounds and minerals (Sarker et al. 2012). Chilli is also associated with important health benefits, i.e. antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-neoplastic, anticancer and antifungal characteristics. Besides, chilli extracts are reported as biochemical pest repellants and pesticides (Chinn et al. 2011). It is well-known due to the presence of pungent compounds, i.e. crystalline and harsh unstable alkaloid capsaicin having various prophylactic and beneficial uses as medicine (Dubey et al. 2015). Chilli is a non-climacteric and highly perishable fruit, which generally encounters postharvest complications, e.g. quality degradation, rapid weight loss, and color change (Edusei et al. 2012). Chilli contains more than 80% (wet basis, wb) moisture during harvest, which is very prone to insect and fungal attack during storage.

Drying is an essential step for the preservation and cost reduction of transport and storage of plant material (Shishir et al. 2018). It is one of the methods of reducing moisture content by which microbial actions can be prevented as well as the shelf-life of chilli can be extended (Pham et al. 2017). However, fresh chilli is generally dried in the ripened condition in the open sunlight without any pretreatment (Sarker et al. 2012). But, sun drying has some problems, such as prone to contamination, long drying time and weather dependence. Additionally, sun drying affects color and results in shrinkage of the product, which leads to a final unattractive product. This is because the outer layer of the fruit tissue impedes to transfer water from the inner surface (Ganiy et al. 2010). Although shade drying retains many important properties, it has some disadvantages as like occur in sun drying e.g. low energy efficiency, inconsistent quality standards, contamination problems, that are undesirable for the food industry (Dwivedy et al. 2012). In contrast, hot air drying or mechanical drying is a fast drying process, even though it is energy consuming. The product qualities particularly color, texture, flavor, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, phenolics and other nutrients are often deteriorated by thermal drying due to the development of browning pigment and direct contact with air and light (Wiriya et al. 2009). This is why, blanching and chemical pretreatments are used prior to the drying of many food products (Duarte et al. 2017; Take-Ajaykumar et al. 2012). Therefore, a suitable technology and better processing conditions are required for the production of green chilli powder in the present situation.

To date, several works have been reported on the manufacturing of green chilli powder (Sarker et al. 2012; Take-Ajaykumar et al. 2012; Jyothirmayi et al. 2008). According to their observation, several pretreatments, i.e., blanching and soaking in chemical solutions before drying have been used in order to preserve color and the nutritional quality during drying. However, the present study was the following work of the previous study (Sarker et al. 2012). The new approach of this study was blanching with acetic acid solution and soaking in a mixed chemical solution of Na2S2O5 and CaCl2 before proceeding for drying, which was not done in the previous studies (Sarker et al. 2012; Take-Ajaykumar et al. 2012; Jyothirmayi et al. 2008) on the production of green chilli powder. Literature supports that blanching with the acid solution before drying can alleviate the adverse effect of hot air drying, preserve color, and enhance the relative bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds (Hiranvarachat et al. 2012). Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different pretreatments under hot air drying on the drying characteristics, physicochemical properties and functional compounds of green chilli powder. The findings of this study can play a significant role in powder technology particularly in the production and commercialization of such spice.

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Materials and methods
Raw materials and chemicals
Fresh, matured but not over-matured, and disease free green and red chilli (Capsicum annum L.) were collected from a local farmer’s field, near to Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. All the chemicals used for the experiments were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA).

Preparation of samples
Fresh green and red chilli were sorted and de-stalked manually and washed in running tap water to remove adhering dirt and dust particles. Then, the chilli was immediately wiped with a table cloth to remove superficial moisture. After cleaning, five sets of samples were prepared such as pretreated green chilli paste (PTGP), pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit (PTGL), pretreated whole red chilli (PTWR), untreated green chilli paste (UTGP), and untreated whole fresh green chilli (UTWG) (as control). 1000 g of each chilli sample was used for the study. Pretreatment of chilli was done by blanching in 2% acetic acid solution for 2 min at a temperature of 100 °C and by soaking immediately in the chemical solution of 0.3% Na2S2O5 combined with 1% CaCl2 for 10 min. The green chilli was made into a paste using a Laboratory Grinder (Jaipan CM/L-7360065, Japan) while the longitudinal slit was done by a sharp knife. All the prepared samples (except UTWG) were dried in a cabinet dryer (Model-136-120, Seoul, Korea) at 60 °C until a final moisture content of around 8% (w/w) was obtained. During drying, trays of the dryer were altered from time to time to facilitate uniform drying. Thereafter, dried chilli samples were pulverized to prepare powder by the grinder. Then the prepared powder was passed through a sieve (Sieve no. MIC-300) for obtaining fine chilli powder. The screened powder was weighed and finally packed in high-density polyethene (HDPE) pouches. The samples were stored at room temperature until further use.

Construction of drying characteristic curves
The loss of moisture from the samples was taken at every 1-h interval during the whole drying period. The drying curves were drawn by plotting the percent moisture content against the drying time. Drying rates for all the samples were calculated according to the formula applied by Wade et al. (2014) as follows:

where R—drying rate (g H2O/100 g dry sample/h); Wr—amount of moisture removed (g); Wd—total bone-dry weight of the sample (g) and t—drying time (h). The drying rate curves were drawn by plotting the drying rates against the percent moisture content.

Proximate analysis
The proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and carbohydrate contents) of the obtained chilli powder and fresh green chilli was determined as per the method mentioned by AOAC (2005).

Measurements of color parameters
The surface color of the samples was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (CM2500d, Konica, Minolta Optics Inc., Japan) based on the CIE L*a*b* color space. Values of L* represent brightness, a* correspond to the red-green color gradient while b* denotes to the yellow-blue color gradient. Three measurements were conducted in each sample. The Hue angle (h) and Chroma (C*) were calculated according to the formula (Wiriya et al. 2009) as follows:

Determination of ascorbic acid content
The content of ascorbic acid was determined according to the method described by Adebayo (2010) with slight modification. Two grams of each sample was mixed with 5 mL of 20% metaphosphoric acid solution and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. 1 mL of the filtrate was added to a small beaker and mixed with 10 mL de-ionized water. Then, 2 mL was transferred into a beaker, shaken with 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution, and titrated against 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol until the pink color was developed. Ascorbic acid content was calculated according to the following equation:

Here, dye factor—the amount of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol required to neutralize a known volume (usually 5 mL) of standard ascorbic acid [Dye factor = 0.5/Titre, where 0.5 implies that 5 mL of the standard ascorbic acid solution contains 0.5 mg ascorbic acid].

Determination of chlorophyll and β-carotene content
Chlorophyll and β-carotene contents were determined using the method described by Nagata and Yamashita (1992) with little modification. Pigments in the sample were extracted with acetone-hexane (4:6) simultaneously, and the optical density of all the supernatants was measured at 663, 645, 505, and 453 nm through a UV/VIS-spectrometer (T80 UV/VIS Spectrometer, PG Instruments LTD.). The chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ contents were estimated in mg/100 g by using the following equations:

The β-Carotene content was estimated in mg/100 mL by using the following equation (Igbokwe et al. 2013):

where A663, A645, A505 and A453 are the absorbance at 663, 645, 505 and 453 nm, respectively.

Pungency test
The pungency of chilli samples was determined using the method described by Hossain and Bala (2007). 4 g of chilli powder was extracted with acetone until a colorless acetone solution was obtained. The volume was then made up to 100 mL with acetone. The extract was kept 3 h at room temperature. After 3 h, 5 mL of acetone was taken in a beaker and heated on a water bath until fully dry. To this, 5 mL of 0.1 N NaOH solution was added followed by 3 mL of 3% phosphomolybdic acid solution and was kept at room temperature for 1 h. Finally, optical density was measured at 650 nm using a spectrophotometer (T80 UV/VIS Spectrometer, PG Instruments LTD.). The value of optical density was considered as the pungency index of chilli powder. Samples with higher optical density were considered to contain more capsaicin, and therefore more pungent.

Determination of total phenolic content
The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method (Heimler et al. 2006) with minor modification. The extracted solution was obtained using 1 g sample mixed with 40 mL 100% methanol in a separate glass beaker and stirred for 4–5 min. Then the mixture was concentrated to 10 mL by heat using hotplate stirrer followed by adding 10 mL of 100% methanol to concentrated samples solution. From these mixtures, an aliquot of 1 mL of each sample was taken in glass test tubes to which 0.2 mL 10% Folin–Ciocalteau reagent was added. These mixtures were vortexed for 3 min. Then 0.8 mL of 7.5% Na2CO3 was added to the mixture and allowed to stand in a dark place for 1–2 h before measuring the absorbance at 760 nm using a spectrophotometer (T80 UV/VIS Spectrometer, PG Instruments LTD.) against the blank (contained the same mixture solution without the sample extract). The total phenolic content was determined using the following formula by a comparison of the values obtained with the standard curve of gallic acid. The results were expressed as mg gallic acid/100 g of the sample.

Statistical analysis
Each experiment was repeated thrice, and results were expressed as mean ± standard error mean (SEM). The obtained data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). One-way analysis of variance was done using ANOVA procedures. Significant differences among the means were determined by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at the 95% confidence level.

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Results and discussion
Effects of processing techniques on the drying characteristics
The moisture changing pattern during drying of chilli samples as a result of drying temperature at different time intervals is sketched in Figs. 1 and ​and2.2. It was observed from Fig. 1 that the moisture rapidly decreased at the initial stage and afterwards slowed down until equilibrium moisture level. The drying time required for lowering the initial moisture content of chilli samples (86.31%, wb) to the desired moisture content (~ 8%, wb) varied between 14 and 19 h. The reason of slow moisture removal during drying process could be attributed to the low diffusion of moisture within the chilli than that of evaporation of moisture from the surface, and therefore the overall drying process is diffusion-controlled mass transfer phenomena (Wiriya et al. 2010). Maximum drying time (19 h) was taken by untreated chilli sample (UTGP) while treated samples took comparatively shorter time from 14 to 18 h. The results clearly demonstrated that the pretreatments reduced the drying time of chilli samples (Fig. 1). Blanching in acetic acid solution and soaking in a combined solution of Na2S2O5 and CaCl2 helped to accelerate the drying rate of chilli samples. The blanching and chemical soaking softened the texture or membrane, which facilitated a faster drying process (Raja et al. 2017). The drying rate of chilli samples showed that the moisture removal occurred logarithmically during the drying process as shown in Fig. 2a–d. At the initial stage of drying, the moisture content of chilli was higher, and as a consequence of drying, more moisture was readily evaporated from the outer surface of chilli. As the drying process proceeded, the moisture of the chilli surface was decreased and the evaporation zone moved from the surface into the inside of chilli leading to the less water evaporation of chilli samples. Hence, the drying rate was reduced with the drying time. Further, the absolute constant-rate period was not observed during drying of chilli, while drying mostly took place in the falling-rate period. The following regression equations were obtained for drying rate curves of chilli samples. For PTGP:




From the above regression equations, it is obvious that the most efficient and smooth drying rate was observed for PTWR (R2 = 0.964), followed by PTGL (R2 = 0.9477), PTGP (R2 = 0.9412) and UTGP (R2 = 0.9013). These results are corroborated by Hossain and Bala (2007) and Banout et al. (2011).

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Fig. 1
Drying curve obtained during drying of various chilli samples in a cabinet dryer at 60 °C (PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, PTWR pretreated whole red chilli, UTWG untreated green chilli paste)

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Fig. 2
Drying rate curves showing the rate of moisture removal during drying of chilli samples (PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, PTWR pretreated whole red chilli, UTWG untreated green chilli paste)

Effects of processing techniques on physicochemical properties and functional compounds
Effect on proximate composition The effects of processing methods on the proximate analysis of the chilli samples are summarized in Table 1. The moisture content of fresh green chilli (UTWG) was 86.31 g/100 g. However, the moisture contents of chilli powder were satisfactorily ranging from 7.50 to 8.45 g/100 g and statistically similar (P ≤ 0.05). This was a good indication of the stability of green chilli powder against oxidative and microbial deterioration (Toontom et al. 2012). Crude protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of chilli powders ranged from 11.93 to 12.99 g/100 g, 6.07 to 7.40 g/100 g, 4.68 to 7.72 g/100 g and 64.81 to 68.08 g/100 g, respectively, which were significantly different at 95% level of confidence. Similar findings were reported by other studies (Sarker et al. 2012; Jyothirmayi et al. 2008). The changes in proximate composition among the chilli samples might be due to several factors e.g. processing techniques used, stage of maturity, drying temperature, time of drying, oxidation of important constituents, weather conditions including soil types and compositional differences (Singh et al. 2016; Sarker et al. 2012; Ahmed et al. 2010).
Table 1
Proximate composition of fresh green chilli and chilli powder

Sample Proximate composition
Moisture (g/100 g) Total ash (g/100 g) Fat (g/100 g) Crude protein (g/100 g) Carbohydrate (g/100 g)
Chilli powder
PTGP 7.50 ± 0.15a 4.68 ± 0.52c 6.75 ± 0.09b 12.99 ± 0.03a 68.08 ± 0.54a
PTGL 7.81 ± 0.06a 4.84 ± 0.32c 7.24 ± 0.06a 12.74 ± 0.06b 67.37 ± 0.24a
PTWR 8.14 ± 0.03a 7.72 ± 0.07a 7.40 ± 0.07a 11.93 ± 0.02c 64.81 ± 0.05b
UTGP 8.45 ± 0.22a 6.06 ± 0.07b 6.07 ± 0.05c 12.81 ± 0.02b 66.61 ± 0.33a
Fresh green chilli
UTWG 86.31 ± 0.61 0.73 ± 0.01 2.46 ± 0.21 5.49 ± 0.03 4.99 ± 0.78
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All values are mean ± SEM of three replicates

PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, PTWR pretreated whole red chilli, UTGP untreated green chilli paste, UTWG whole fresh green chilli

a–cThe test values along the same column carrying different superscripts for each composition contents are significantly different (P < 0.05)

Effect on ascorbic acid Ascorbic acid contents of all dried chilli samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased and ranged from 69.56 to 74.19 mg/100 g (Table 2), whereas it was 127.09 mg/100 g in fresh chilli. Maximum ascorbic acid was recorded in sample PTGL (74.09 mg/100 g) followed by PTGP (73.46 mg/100 g), UTGP (71.14 mg/100 g) and PTWR (69.55 mg/100 g). These values are compatible with the report on fresh bell pepper (Sharma et al. 2014), green pepper (Igbokwe et al. 2013), fresh green chilli (Toontom et al. 2012), and dried green chilli powders (Sarker et al. 2012). According to the ‘Food Composition Table’ reported by the Rural Development Administration (RDA), the ascorbic acid content of dried chilli is about 26 mg/100 g (RDA 2001). However, this study exposed maximum ascorbic acid content which is 74 mg/100 g of dried chilli powder, which indicates a significant contribution in comparison with the ‘Food Composition Table’ reported by Rural Development Administration (RDA 2001).
Table 2
Total phenol, β-carotene, chlorophyll (a and b) and ascorbic acid content of fresh green chilli and chilli powder

Sample Total phenol (mg/100 g) β-Carotene (µg/100 g) Ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) Chlorophyll-a (mg/100 g) Chlorophyll-b (mg/100 g)
Chilli powder
PTGP 958.34 ± 2.48a 982.30 ± 1.15b 73.46 ± 0.05b 2.57 ± 0.003b 3.82 ± 0.014ab
PTGL 871.81 ± 2.35b 989.46 ± 1.23a 74.09 ± 0.09a 2.87 ± 0.008a 3.89 ± 0.256a
PTWR 820.57 ± 3.17c 122.63 ± 1.45c 69.55 ± 0.04d 0.39 ± 0.002d 0.32 ± 0.002c
UTGP 873.80 ± 3.10b 978.70 ± 1.62b 71.14 ± 0.01c 2.18 ± 0.023c 3.45 ± 0.056b
Fresh green chilli
UTWG 435.92 ± 3.23 241.50 ± 1.32 127.09 ± 0.10 0.405 ± 0.007 0.756 ± 0.007
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All values are mean ± SEM of three replicates

PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, PTWR pretreated whole red chilli, UTGP untreated green chilli paste, UTWG whole fresh green chilli

a–dThe test values along the same column carrying different superscripts for each composition contents are significantly different (P < 0.05)

According to Table 3, it was found that the retentions of ascorbic acid in chilli powders were very low ranging from 8.37 to 8.69% on a solid mass basis. These findings are corroborated by the study of Gupta et al. (2013) who reported 4–8% retention (fresh weight basis) of ascorbic acid in dried green leafy vegetables except for dried Centella asiatica leafy vegetable retained 14% ascorbic acid. On the contrary, the retention of ascorbic acid was reported at around 13.36–37.53% (dry mass basis), in mustard, mint and spinach (Kaur et al. 2008). A number of studies strongly supported that ascorbic acid is highly sensitive to heat (Raja et al. 2017; Gupta et al. 2013; Sarker et al. 2012). The loss of ascorbic acid in this study can be a result of prolonged exposure of chilli samples to cabinet drying temperature (60 °C). In addition to drying temperature, oxygen, pH, metal and other parameters were reported to have a significant contribution to the loss of ascorbic acid (Wang et al. 2018). This phenomenon can be attributed to the destruction of cell structure as it can lead to ascorbic acid release and contribute to the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid (Wang et al. 2018). So, ascorbic acid content often used as an indicator to evaluate the nutrient loss of fruits and vegetables during processing and storage.

Table 3
Retention of functional compounds in green chilli powders in comparison with fresh green chilli (solid mass basis)

Sample Total phenol (%) β-Carotene (%) Ascorbic acid (%) Total chlorophyll (%)
PTGP 32.39 ± 0.11a 60.34 ± 0.15b 8.58 ± 0.02b 81.36 ± 1.34b
PTGL 29.56 ± 0.07b 60.79 ± 0.10a 8.69 ± 0.01a 86.43 ± 1.84a
UTGP 29.87 ± 0.17b 60.68 ± 0.25b 8.37 ± 0.01c 72.52 ± 1.19c
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All values are mean ± SEM of three replicates

PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, UTGP untreated green chilli paste

a–cThe test values along the same column carrying different superscripts for each composition contents are significantly different (P < 0.05)

Effect on β-carotene Table 2 indicates significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences in β-carotene content of chilli powders. The β-carotene content ranged from 122.63 to 989.46 µg/100 g. Similar results were reported by Sharma et al. (2014) for bell pepper. The findings of the present study were considerably higher than the findings reported by Igbokwe et al. (2013) for green and red pepper; and Sarker et al. (2012) for both fresh green chilli and dried chilli. Moreover, Table 3 indicates that the retention of β-carotene content among chilli powders were greater than 60% on a solid mass basis. Gupta et al. (2013) reported about 49–73% retention of β-carotene (fresh weight basis) in five types of dried leafy vegetables, while Kaur et al. (2008) observed 22.26–55.16% retention β-carotene (dry weight basis) in three types of dried green leafy vegetables.
Effect on chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ content Chlorophyll content of chilli samples significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced after drying (Table 2). The content of chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ were around 2.87–0.390 mg/100 g and 3.89–0.318 mg/100 g, respectively. It was previously reported that long dehydration times together with high temperatures can produce poor quality products due to caramelization, Maillard reactions, enzymatic reactions, pigment degradation and L-ascorbic acid oxidation (Kim et al. 2006). However, Table 3 clearly illustrates that retention of total chlorophyll content in treated chilli powders were more than 80% with maximum retention of 86.43% in PTGL, while untreated green chilli powder UTGP exhibited 72.52% retention of chlorophyll content. It can be inferred that pretreatment, i.e. blanching with chemical soaking before drying has a significant effect on the retention of total chlorophyll content in green chilli powders (Negi and Roy 2000).
Effect on total phenolic compounds In addition to ascorbic acid and carotenoids, phenolic compounds are one of the principal antioxidant constituents of natural products, which composed of phenolic acids and flavonoids that are potent radical terminators. Data presented in Table 2 indicates that total phenolic content in chilli powders showed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) with a range of 820.57–958.34 mg/100 g, while it was 435.92 mg/100 g in fresh green chilli. These findings exhibited greater values of phenolic content in comparison with previous studies reported on dried green chilli (Wiriya et al. 2009) and sweet bell pepper (Sharma et al. 2014). Our study revealed 29.56–32.39% retention of total phenolic content (solid mass basis) in chilli powders (Table 3). The pretreatment enhanced the preservation of phenolic compounds in green chilli powder produced from green chilli paste (PTGP) compared to the untreated green chilli paste powder (UTGP). However, there was no effect of pretreatment in the preservation of phenolic compounds in chilli powder produced from PTGL (Table 3). These results were compatible with the findings of Wiriya et al. (2009). Moreover, all of the green chilli powders exhibited 2 times higher phenolic compounds in comparison with fresh chilli, if it is considered in wet mass basis (not solid mass basis). Previous studies corroborated that dried form (powder) can reveal a greater amount of phenolic compounds than that of fresh one (Raja et al. 2017). Furthermore, phenolic content in dried products can be increased in many reasons as such the conversion of flavonoids to secondary phenolic compounds (Barz and Hoesel 1977). Heating together with chemical treatment may reduce the enzyme activities and increase the free radical scavenging activities, which may enhance the presence of total phenolic content in dried chilli powder. Also, the significant increase in polyphenolic content in case of dried chilli might be due to the formation of polyphenolic substances due to the availability of precursors of polyphenolic molecules by non-enzymatic interconversion between polyphenolic molecules (Mehta et al. 2017). Alteration of the matrix during drying may also enhance the extractability of phenolic compounds (Raja et al. 2017).
Effect on color characteristics The quality of dried chilli can also be characterized through its color and pungency as these properties reflects the presence of natural compounds, consumer’s acceptance, and therefore the market value. The results of this study showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in color values of dried chilli samples (Table 4). Overall, the values of L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma of the dried chilli samples were higher than that of the fresh chilli. A clear effect of pretreatment on color preservation of dehydrated green chilli was observed as shown in Table 4. Pretreated chilli powders exhibited lower a* value and higher hue angle compared to untreated chilli powder (UTGP), which indicates better retention of the greenness of chilli in powder form. This is because the region of pure green color is 180°. The increase of hue angle near to 180° indicates that the conversion of light green color to dark green color. Similarly, lower values of a* refers to higher greenness. Moreover, the chemical compound chlorophyll is responsible for the greenness of chilli. The presence of higher amount of total chlorophyll (chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’) in treated chilli powders also proves the availability of higher green color in treated chilli powders (Table 3) compared to untreated chilli powder (UTGP). Previous researchers reported that pretreatment, i.e. blanching of green chilli in acetic acid solution can prevent the enzyme reaction i.e. enzymatic browning reaction (responsible for discoloration of sample) induced by oxidase reaction of polyphenol groups, and also acts as the green color fixing agent (Wiriya et al. 2009; Hossain and Bala 2007). Nevertheless, the results of this study exerted that blanched chilli soaked in chemical solution (Na2S2O5 combined with CaCl2) also preserved the purity of color; because Na2S2O5 can inhibit the browning reaction by binding with the carbonyl group of reducing sugars and other compounds to retard the browning process (Take-Ajaykumar et al. 2012). In addition, CaCl2 improved the color stability as it may react with water molecules resulting in increased water mobility and reduced drying time (Wiriya et al. 2009). In contrast, higher color degradation in untreated samples may be the result of pigment oxidation and decomposition due to higher exposure to oxygen during drying as well as the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and amino acid in the pericarp of chilli (Toontom et al. 2012).
Table 4
Colour parameters and pungency index of fresh green chilli and chilli powder

Sample Color parameters Pungency index
L* a* B* Hue Angle (h) Croma (C*)
Chilli powder
PTGP 38.99 ± 0.23a 2.71 ± 0.04d 30.81 ± 1.04b 84.95 ± 0.11a 30.93 ± 1.04b 0.958 ± 0.002b
PTGL 33.84 ± 0.17c 4.38 ± 0.12c 30.78 ± 0.61b 81.88 ± 0.08b 31.09 ± 0.62b 0.945 ± 0.000bc
PTWR 34.81 ± 0.30b 32.96 ± 0.30a 39.73 ± 0.30a 50.32 ± 0.08d 51.63 ± 0.42a 2.425 ± 0.042a
UTGP 18.32 ± 0.22d 12.14 ± 0.54b 24.03 ± 0.38c 63.21 ± 0.95c 26.93 ± 0.49c 0.887 ± 0.004c
Fresh green chilli
UTWG 29.19 ± 0.10 − 5.21 ± 0.13 29.75 ± 1.25 − 80.03 ± 0.44 30.20 ± 1.24 1.103 ± 0.006
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All values are mean ± SEM of three replicates

PTGP pretreated green chilli paste, PTGL pretreated green chilli longitudinal slit, PTWR pretreated whole red chilli, UTGP untreated green chilli paste, UTWG whole fresh green chilli

L* = lightness; a* = red (+)/green (−); b* = yellow (+)/blue (−)

a–dThe test values along the same column carrying different superscripts for each parameter are significantly different (P < 0.05)

Effect on pungency index The values of pungency index for all samples are shown in Table 4. A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in pungency index was observed between samples being the highest in PTWR (2.425 ± 0.042) and the lowest in UTGP (0.887 ± 0.004). Pungency index of pretreated samples was found higher than that of untreated samples. Capsaicinoid compounds, primarily capsaicin (8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide) and dihydrocapsaicin determine the pungency of chilli (Gangadhar et al. 2012). Previously it was reported in various studies that chilli genotype and environmental interactions (intensity of light, temperature, and age of the fruit etc.) also determine the level of capsaicin i.e. pungent flavor of chilli. These properties are also accorded due to the presence of phenolic compounds and carotenoids (Dubey et al. 2015).
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This study exhibited the effect of processing techniques on green chilli powder characteristics and its functional compounds. It was found that pretreatment before drying not only reduced the drying time but also improved the preservation of functional compounds and green color with high pungency index. This study exhibited the highest chlorophyll retention of around 86% (solid mass basis) with the acceptable retention of β-carotene (~ 60%) and phenolic compounds (~ 32%). Even though ascorbic acid retention was very low (> 8%, solid mass basis), the amount of retention still shows an excellent contribution to chilli powder. Therefore, the findings of cabinet drying of green chilli at 60 °C with pretreatment added valuable information to the current knowledge of the nutritional properties in green chilli powder, which might open the scope for commercial production of green chilli powder with adequate nutritive value.

Chili powder (also spelled chile, chilli, or, alternatively, powdered chili) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (where it is also sometimes known as chili powder blend or chili seasoning mix).[1] It is used as a spice (or spice blend) to add pungency (piquancy) and flavor to culinary dishes. In American English, the spelling is usually "chili"; in British English, "chilli" (with two "l"s) is used consistently.

Chili powder is used in many different cuisines, including American (particularly Tex-Mex), Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, Korean, Mexican, Portuguese, and Thai. A chili powder blend is the primary flavor in American chili con carne.[1]

Modern Chili Powder - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost And Revenue
Chilies are the dried ripe fruits of genus capsicum. These spices are also called red peppers of capsicums and constitute an important, well known commercial crop used both as a condiment / culinary supplement and as a vegetable. There is no doubt that India has immense potential to grow chilies. The world demand for the Indian chilies is also going up, India exports chilies to the USA, UK, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries. Chilly is grown in almost all state in India. Andhra Pradesh has the highest area under crop cultivation and produces the maximum followed by Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, West Bengal and a few other states. There is good scope for chili powder unit. Any new entrepreneur can well venture in this field.
Plant capacity: 550 Kgs/Day Plant & machinery: Rs. 2 Lakhs
Working capital: Rs. 27 Lakhs T.C.I: Rs. 43 Lakhs
Return: 34.89% Break even: 56.74%
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1 Varieties
2 Blends
3 Chili in food
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
Chili powder is sometimes known by the specific type of chili pepper used. Varieties of chili peppers used to make chili powder include Aleppo, ancho, cayenne, chipotle, chile de árbol, jalapeño, New Mexico, pasilla, and piri piri chili peppers. Gochugaru is a variety used in Korean cuisine traditionally made from sun-dried Korean red chili peppers known as taeyang-cho, with spicier varieties using Cheongyang peppers.[2] Kashmiri chili powder is bright red, but mild in heat and used in Indian cuisine, named after the region of Kashmir.

Chili powder varieties
Aleppo pepper
Aleppo pepper

Ancho chili powder
Ancho chili powder

Piri piri powder
Piri piri powder

Indian chili powder (from red chilis)
Indian chili powder (from red chilis)

Gochugaru (Korean chili powder)
Gochugaru (Korean chili powder)

Traceability of unknown chili powders can be detected by using spectrophotometry methods. Studies had found that origin of chili powders can be detected by analysing the trace elements in the chili powder.[3][4]

Chili powder blends are composed chiefly of chili peppers and blended with other spices including cumin, onion, garlic powder, and sometimes salt.[5][6] The chilis are most commonly red chili peppers; "hot" varieties usually also include cayenne pepper. As a result of the varying recipes used, the spiciness of any given chili powder is variable.

The first commercial blends of chili powder in the U.S. were created by D.C. Pendery and William Gebhardt for this dish.[7] Gebhardt opened Miller's Saloon in New Braunfels, Texas. Chili was the town's favorite dish. However, chili peppers could only be found at certain times of the year. Gebhardt imported some ancho peppers from Mexico and ran the peppers through a small meat grinder three times and created the first commercial chili powder, which became available in 1894.[8]

Chili in food
Chili powder is very commonly seen in traditional Latin American, west Asian and east European cuisines. It is used in soups, tacos, enchiladas, fajitas, curries and meat.[9]

Chili can also be found in sauces and curry bases, such as chili con carne. Chili sauce can be used to marinate and season things such as meat.